This time of year is perfect for planting new trees to fill your yards or your barren parkways. Here are a few things to keep in mind as you select the perfect new tree.
As you drive through a beautiful neighborhood with stunning, mature trees, do you ever stop to think about the people who planted them?
Especially in newer subdivisions, mature trees are sorely lacking. But every mature tree begins as a sapling. Fall is a great time to plant most trees, right up until the ground freezes.
The exception is evergreen trees, which do better when planted in spring, summer or early fall, says Char Babcock, nursery manager at K & W Greenery, 1328 U.S. 14, Janesville.
“Evergreens don’t go totally dormant like deciduous trees do, in winter, so you’re taking a risk planting them later than October,” she explains. Evergreens planted in late fall often don’t have time to establish roots and may turn brown during very cold weather, when their foliage loses water.
By contrast, deciduous trees – trees which drop their leaves each fall – don’t mind going into cold ground. They’re asleep, anyway, so they ride out the winter in a dormant state and then wake up during the spring thaw, ready to grow.
Jon Carlson, owner of J. Carlson Growers, 8938 Newburg Road, Rockford, says consumers should do their homework before buying and planting trees. A common mistake is planting a tree too close to a house or in another space it will outgrow.
“It’s hard for people to conceptualize what a plant will look like after many years of growth,” says Carlson. “But it’s much, much better to choose the right plant for the space, in the first place, than to try to prune it into submission later. Trees grow. That’s what they’re supposed to do. Part of the beauty you enjoy in a tree is seeing its natural shape. Especially in winter, when leaves have dropped, a tree can be like a beautiful sculpture, a piece of artwork. But not if it’s been all hacked up.”
Thanks to breeding programs that have been in place for decades, many trees are available in a range of sizes, today. For example, these days you can buy a beautiful, scab-resistant flowering crabapple tree in sizes that range from 4-by-4 feet to 20-by-20 feet.
By all means, plant large trees if you have space to accommodate their mature size. Burr and white oak trees, for example, are native to our natural landscape and beautiful in every season. Other deciduous trees that do well in our region (and reduce cooling costs to the homes they shade) include maple, sycamore, linden, locust and hickory trees. Ash trees are not a good choice, right now, due to an infestation of emerald ash borers that’s decimating ash populations across the nation.
Large trees shouldn’t be planted too near a house or too close to overhead wires. No one enjoys seeing a row of trees that have been hollowed out in the middle to accommodate power lines. Still, we all value our electrical service.
The solution is to plant trees below power lines that crown at less than 25 feet tall, says Carlson. He recommends the following nine varieties for their flowering and fruiting characteristics, compatibility with our climate and shorter stature.
1. Serviceberry. They have attractive bark, spring flowers, fall color and small fruits enjoyed by wildlife.
2. Eastern Redbud. This small, springtime flowering tree usually has multiple trunks and graceful ascending branches. Its reddish-purple spring color is stunning; leaves turn yellow in fall.
3. Japanese Tree Lilac. An attractive upright habit and strong salt/urban tolerance make it ideal for lining city streets. It has large, creamy-white flowers in springtime.
4. Amur Maple. This slow-growing tree with glossy dark-green leaves seldom surpasses 20 feet in height. Some varieties offer stunning autumn color.
5. Susan Magnolia. This tree tops out below 20 feet and offers large, pink spring blooms. Royal Star is another good variety, and has white blossoms.
6. Japanese Red Maple. With beautiful red leaves that “light up” in sunlight, this tree can spread out as much as 20 feet but won’t grow taller than 25 feet.
7. Hawthorn. Carlson recommends a variety like ‘Thornless Cockspur’ or ‘Crimson Cloud’ that won’t exceed 20 feet tall. Enjoy attractive flowers, fruit and nice growth habits.
8. Pagoda Dogwood. This beauty has fragrant, creamy-white flowers in early spring, blue-black fruit on red stems in summer, red/purple foliage in fall and an attractive horizontal layered form.
9. Flowering Crabapple. Many kinds are suitable for planting below power lines; check with your gardening expert to learn about heights for each. Known for their explosion of spring pink or white blossoms and colorful fruits, newer varieties are bred to resist the scab that once plagued this Midwest favorite. Carlson recommends ‘Prairiefire,’ ‘Redbud Crabapple’ and ‘Spring Snow Crabapple,’ among many others.
No matter what kind of tree you’re planting, there are ways to improve its odds of survival. Since our soil tends to have a lot of heavy clay in it, it’s a good idea to make a larger-than-needed planting hole and add some well-balanced, rich soil to it, so young roots can get off to a good start.
“Don’t plant a tree like a fencepost,” advises Babcock. “The top of the root ball should be even with the ground, showing a bit of flare from the trunk to the ground. And don’t drown the trunk in mulch. Allow the trunk to have air circulation.”
Be sure to keep a new tree watered, even after temperatures turn cool, Babcock adds. “Around Thanksgiving, give a new tree a good drink – really soak it – so that it doesn’t go into the hard freeze in soil that’s too dry.”
Many garden centers will deliver and plant a tree for you, charging roughly half of the cost of the tree for this service. If you decide to do the planting yourself, be sure to take the same precautions as professionals (see box at left.)
Although trees mostly take care of themselves once planted, there are things to consider. “Careless use of lawn mowers and string trimmers can cause severe injury to trees,” says Carlson. “It’s also important to water correctly. Too much or too little can stress trees. And poor drainage caused by soil compaction prevents root growth.”
While trees require proper nutrients to sustain growth, resist applying too much fertilizer. Soil analysis can pinpoint deficiencies before plant health is affected. Find a partial list of soil testing labs at urbanext.illinois.edu/soiltest, or call your local university extension service.
A well-chosen, well-located tree can be a source of great joy not only to you and your family, but to generations to come. Be sure to consult a locally owned garden center to get the best possible advice before planting your next tree. Why not plant for the future, this fall?
8 Steps to Planting the Right Tree in the Right Place
1. Planting Site
Usually, plants grow as wide as they grow tall. Choose a site where they won’t grow into buildings or overhead wires and won’t interfere with car and pedestrian traffic.
2. Preparing the Soil
Feed poor soils by adding one part compost to four parts top soil.
Hole depth should equal root ball height. Hole width should be three times root ball diameter, with sides tapered in. Caution: Avoid underground utilities when digging! For free utility locating service, call 811, which is JULIE Illinois.
Prune damaged roots back to healthy tissue and broken branches back to branch collars. Remove all wire, string and plastic from root ball.
5. About Staking
Staking retards strong growth. Use stakes only to support plants until stabilized. Use protective material around trunk to prevent plant damage.
6. Planting Depth
Place plant in hole so top of root ball is at grade, not below. Gently firm soil around roots. Create ridge of soil around rim of hole to retain water.
Use a 2- to 4-inch layer to conserve moisture and protect roots. The best choices are shredded bark or aged wood chips. Don’t over-mulch.
Water once a week, more frequently when weather is very dry. Keep soil moist, not soaked. Water the area directly above root ball.
Source: J. Carlson Growers